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ოზურგეთის ისტორიული მუზეუმი

Historical Museum Of Ozurgeti

Archaeology

With todays situation, we meet to ancient foot - step of human in Guria since Paleolithic (Old Stone Age)  in Guria, which is notified by the residues of Old Stone Age, explored in Khvarbeti-Naghobilevi.
Guria belongs to that number of those hearths of human civilization, where firstly begun the passing from the appropriation thrift to the productivity thrift. It`s one from most important periods of Stone Age- Neolithic (New Stone Age), which consists with long-term epoch of the history of humanity.
Neolithic tribes did a qualitative changes in the development of manufacture, they developed Stone industry, new kinds of weapons have been produced, the tribes got the experience in the thrift, weaving, established the agriculture and cattle-breeding. Anaseuli I, Anaseuli II and Gurianta are densely populated since early Neolithic period. Anaseuli I perfectly introduces early Neolithic culture without ceramics, Anaseuli II and Gurianta – presents Late (developed) Neolithic, where we meet the clay vessels, the knifes made by flint, cobble-stones and obsidians, the perforators, hand-grinders, scrapers, chsels, axes, at list perforated, the flint sides of the arrow, the weaposn like the pick, hammers, stones for the catapult, some fragments of clay vessels, most part of them are decorated with wavy, notch and cavity ornaments. 
Big numbers of the exhibits are explored after the archaeological excavations, part of them for the moment of earthworks. These discoveries have reinforced the opinion about the originality of population in Guria and autonomous development of their ancient culture.
The second progress of human society is the epoch - passing to metal century. Guria is distinguished with interesting archaeological achievements of that period. Most ancient is Ureki treasure of Middle Bronze Age. Bronze treasures from Melekeduri, Baghdadi, Vakijvari, Shroma, Makvaneti and Alituri  take a big space  here, which consists with spoiled bow, hoes, segment weapons, axes, elongated axes, sides of lances, knives and numerous bars.
Late Bronze, Early Iron Ages (II of II millennium, I part of I millennium of BC) consist with new labyrinths of Historical past. Southern – West Georgia, the territory of Adjara – Guria was a crandle for Kolkhian tribal unions (Diaokhi, Kolkha).  Strong hearths of Iron producing were acting here (the pool of Supsa-Gubazouli). Special place is divided for numerous materials in the exhibition, explored in the graves of Ureki- Tsvermaghala from Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages, which describe some stage of old Kolkhian history, existed in longterm- non-stop development of one Ethno-social environment.
We would like to underline ceramic products -  big glasses, the vessels- like as vine tree, the pitchers with the pipes, jugs, different agricultural and fighting weapons, axes, knifes, daggers, the sides of lances, whetstones, the things related with the cloths and toilet: the pins, fasteners, hasps,  hooks, tweezers, bracelets and rings, bells, bronze chains. 
The bids with different forms and sizes made by Serdolik and dark brown carnelian, agate and different mountainous minerals are presented numerously in the exhibition. The Bronze plastic is less presented, but what exists, takes an attention with its theme and special creation. Most important is there the figures- related with the cult: the roebuck, ox, mother idol. The sculpture of roebuck is distinguished with its plastic, which direct analogy isn`t seen in Kolkhian materials. The sculpture of the ox with it wound horns to the forehead indicates the specialily of this ox, its divine originality. This is clear that it`s a sculpture of the Ox idol, which is an idolized power of groundwork. The sculpture of mother idol is supreme idol of the productivity, which is well-known with different names in different nations (Greek Rea).
 
In Antic age Kolkheti was introducing as the strong state, the Creeks knew about the Black Sea coastline exactly in the age of might of Kolkheti Kingdom. In that period Southern-West Georgia was one from the promoted regions, developed with the agriculture, cattle-breeding, fishing and handicraft producing. 
From VI century of BC the Ionic trade-mastering centers are fulfilling a key role in the trade-economical relations with Kolkheti. Local ceramic or other kinds of products are found at the ancient dwellings nearby of Batumi, Kobuleti, Poti and Ureki also in the districts of Kolkheti. Thus, the amphora, explored in Ureki belongs to that period. It`s a clay vessel with two ears, thick-walled, tight throat, which was used for the importing of wine, olive oil or other products (cereals). The glass vessel- measuring-glass is explored in Ureki too, which height is 34 sm and the circumference-34 sm. It has high body and the base is deepen a little bit. Inner walls of measuring-glass have the circles, which could be indicators of the size and weight. It`s anxiety that this thing had a function of measuring instrument in medical institutions and belongs to Late Antic Age. The dish decorated with original ornaments from Ureki takes special interest. It`s has quite big size ad heavy. In the middle of this vessel is located the medallion with relief ornaments – big, eight pointed star. Plastically modeled wide border is the second important part in the common decorating composition of the dish, which consists with openwork elements. The silver dish from Ureki with its character and technical originality presents the pattern Late Antic silver vessel and is distinguished with its high mastership. This dish is interesting, because it notifies that the Hellenic-Romanesque elements were strongly settled in Georgia in IV century and close relation with the west were continuing in parallel.
Ureki and its surroundings are well-known with accidentally explored treasures. The Golden earning, necklace, buckle, rings, bracelets, coins and chains from late antic age are special, some part of them are saved in the fonds of the museum.

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